Is located 525 kilometres (326 miles) from Tehran in the western part of Iran. According to the 2011 census, its population is 851,405. People mostly speak Southern Kurdish. Kermanshah has a moderate and mountainous climate. Kermanshah is largest Kurdish speaking city in Iran.
In ancient Iranian mythology, construction of the city is attributed to Tahmuras, the third king of Pishdadian dynasty. It is believed that the Sassanids have constructed Kermanshah and Bahram IV (he was called Kermanshah, meaning king of Kerman) gave his name to this city.
It was a glorious city in Sassanid period about the 4th century AD when it became the capital city of Persian Empire and a significant health center serving as the summer resort for Sassanid kings. In AD 226, following a two-year war led by the Persian Emperor, Ardashir I, against Kurdish tribes in the region, the empire reinstated a local Kurdish prince, Kayus of Medya, to rule Kermanshah. Within the dynasty known as the House of Kayus remained a semi-independent Kurdish kingdom lasting until AD 380 before Ardashir II removed the dynasty's last ruling member.
Kermanshah was conquered by the Arabs in AD 640. Under Seljuk rule in the eleventh century, it became the major cultural and commercial center in western Iran and the southern Kurdish region as a whole. The Safavids fortified the town, and the Qajars repulsed an attack by the Ottomans during Fath Ali Shah's rule (1797–1834). Kermanshah was occupied by Ottomans between.
Is a series of large rock reliefs from the era of Sassanid Empire of Persia, the Iranian dynasty which ruled western Asia from 226 to 650 AD. This example of Sassanid art is located 5 km (3 mi) from the city center of Kermanshah in western Iran. It is located in the heart of the Zagros mountains, where it has endured almost 1,700 years of wind and rain.
The carvings, some of the finest and best-preserved examples of Persian sculpture under the Sassanids, include representations of the investitures of Ardashir II (379–383) and Shapur III (383–388). Like other Sassanid symbols, Taghbostan and its relief patterns accentuate power, religious tendencies, glory, honor, the vastness of the court, game and fighting spirit, festivity, joy, and rejoicing.
Sassanid kings chose a beautiful setting for their rock reliefs along an historic Silk Road caravan route waypoint and campground. The reliefs are adjacent a sacred spring that empties into a large reflecting pool at the base of a mountain cliff.
Taghbostan and its rock relief are one of the 30 surviving Sassanid relics of the Zagros mountains. According to Arthur Pope, the founder of Iranian art and archeology Institute in the USA, "art was characteristic of the Iranian people and the gift which they endowed the world with."
One of the most impressive reliefs inside the largest grotto or ivan is the gigantic equestrian figure of the Sassanid king Khosrau II (591-628 AD) mounted on his favorite charger, Shabdiz. Both horse and rider are arrayed in full battle armor. The arch rests on two columns that bear delicately carved patterns showing the tree of life or the sacred tree. Above the arch and located on two opposite sides are figures of two winged angles with diadems. Around the outer layer of the arch, a conspicuous margin has been carved, jagged with flower patterns. These patterns are also found in the official costumes of Sassanid kings. Equestrian relief panel measured on 16.08.07 approx. 7.45 m across by 4.25 m high.
Behistun inscription is considered as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The Behistun Inscription is a multi-lingual inscription located on Mount Behistun.
The inscription includes three versions of the same text, written in three different cuneiform script languages: Old Persian, Elamite, and Babylonian. A British army officer, Henry Rawlinson, had the inscription transcribed in two parts, in 1835 and 1843. Rawlinson was able to translate the Old Persian cuneiform text in 1838, and the Elamite and Babylonian texts were translated by Rawlinson and others after 1843. Babylonian was a later form of Akkadian: both are Semitic languages. In effect, then, the inscription is to cuneiform what the Rosetta Stone is to Egyptian hieroglyphs: the document most crucial in the decipherment of a previously lost script.
The inscription is approximately 15 metres high by 25 metres wide, and 100 metres up a limestone cliff from an ancient road connecting the capitals of Babylonia and Media (Babylon and Ecbatana). It is extremely inaccessible as the mountainside was removed to make the inscription more visible after its completion. The Old Persian text contains 414 lines in five columns; the Elamite text includes 593 lines in eight columns and the Babylonian text is in 112 lines. The inscription was illustrated by a life-sized bas-relief of Darius, holding a bow as a sign of kingship, with his left foot on the chest of a figure lying on his back before him. The prostrate figure is reputed to be the pretender Gaumata. Darius is attended to the left by two servants, and ten one-metre figures stand to the right, with hands tied and rope around their necks, representing conquered peoples. Faravahar floats above, giving his blessing to the king. One figure appears to have been added after the others were completed, as was (oddly enough) Darius' beard,which is a separate block of stone attached with iron pins and lead.
Qajar dynasty monuments
During the Qajar dynasty (1794 to 1925), Kermanshah Bazaar, Mosques and Tekyehs such as Moavenalmolk Mosque, and beautiful houses such as Khaja Barookh's House were built.
Tekyeh Moavenalmolk, is unique because it has many pictures on the walls that relate to shahnameh, despite some of its more religious ones.
Khaja Barookh's House is located in the old district of Faizabad, a Jewish neighborhood of the city. It was built by a Jewish merchant of the Qajar period, named Barookh/Baruch. The house, an historical depiction of Iranian architecture, was renamed "Randeh-Kesh House", after the last owner, is a "daroongara" I and is connected through a vestibule to the exterior yard and through a corridor to the interior yard. Surrounding the interior yard are rooms, brick pillars making the iwans of the house, and step-like column capitals decorated with brick-stalactite work. This house is among the rare Qajar houses with a private bathroom.
The Anahita Temple The anahita temple is the name of one of two archaeological sites in Iran that is belonged to the ancient deity Anahita. The distinguished one is located at Kangavar that is in eastern Kermanshah Province, on the modern road from Hamadan to Kermanshah, similar to a trace of the silk road. The other is located at Bishapur.The remains at Kangavar reveals Persian architectural designs.The site has ruins of debated date and nature. The ruins of the so-called temple of Anahita sit in the middle of the city of Kangavar on the way to Hamedan. As usual with ancient Iranian temples, the Anahita is also called Nahid- temple sits on a hill. Some potteries, coins, graves, and clay coffins belonging to the Arsacid era have been discovered in this temple. Some Sassanid remains have been found in the excavations of this area, too.
Anahita. Carvansarai Safavid In Qasr-e Shirin, Kermanshah city, There is the remains of the Carvansarai Safavid period which is a place like hotel in the site houses, a collection of monuments located within a boundary northeast of Qasr-e Shirin . This site also includes such architectural and urban remains from the late Sassanid period and the early Islamic period as the palace of Khosrau II, this is attributed to Sassanid period and the Chahar Qapu monument, remains of a stone tower known as Ban Qal'eh, this one belongs to Sassanid period and the early Islamic period.
Char Qapi Fire Temple It is a historical monument of the Sassanid era in Qasre- Shirin. It was constructed of stone and gypsim and was counted as one of the largest five temples of the Sassanid period
Kermanshah Paleolithic Museum
Museum of traditional Martial art: Museum of traditional Martial art is another museum in Kermanshah that was established recently and contains many wax models of traditional wrestlers.
Talab-e Hashilan: There are small islands in this marsh with various plants sheltering 200 sorts of birds. The 1500-hectare marsh is 32 km distant from Kermanshah. Prav Cave in the Prav Mountains between Taq Bostan and Bisotun heights is the deepest cave in Asia (the deepest cave in the world is Ali-Sadr Cave in Hamedan northeast of Kermanshah). There are famous glaciers and a marvelous deep valley in it with several streams.Qoori Qal'eh cave is another of the natural wonders of the province, located 92 km from the city heading toward Paveh.
This museum is unique because it has many pictures on the walls that relate to shahnameh,despite some of its more religious ones.It was bought in 1912 by Hasan Khan Mu'ini Mo'avenalmolk , adding two new components, a zainabiyeh and an abbasiyeh, to the tekkiyya. During the Iran Iraq war, the building was partially destroyed, and was subsequently renovated post-war. The structure is known for its dramatic and colorful tile mosaic panels, which depict religious stories and their principal religious, historical, and political protagonists.
The three-part takiyya is located six meters below street level; a set of seventeen steep steps connects the building with the street. A small sagha-khaneh is found next to the stairs. The first part of the takiyya, the husseiniya, is an attached courtyard surrounded by two-story chambers. The middle part, the zainabiyeh, is a space covered by a two layered dome. Around the central core under the dome are two stories of rooms; the second story is used by women. The last component, the abbasiyeh, is the largest part of the takiyya, and consists of a large interior courtyard bordered on the east by a two-story structure and on the south by an iwan. All three areas are heavily decorated with tile-work. The round arches of the husseiniya are bordered by a band of turquoise tiles.
Tekye-ye Biglarbeigi is one of the old and important buildings of Kermanshah which sits in the old part of the city opposite to Friday Mosque. The construction of of the building began in 1892 by Abdollah Lhan Farrashbashi, known as Biglarbeigi. The building was completed in 1898. The stucco work and mirror work decorations were completed in 1909. This building has an impressive space and beauty. It consists of mirror worked hall, several rooms, alcoves, porticos, and a central big courtyard.