Is the most populated city in the Iranian Azerbaijan, one of the historical capitals of Iran, and the present capital of East Azerbaijan Province. Located in the Quru River valley between the long ridge of the volcanic cones of the Sahand and Eynali mountains, Tabriz' elevation range between 1,350 and 1,600 meters above sea level. The valley opens up into a plain that gently slopes down to the eastern shores of Lake Urmia, 60 kilometres (37 miles) to the west. With cold winters and temperate summers, the city is considered a summer resort.
Tabriz has a population of 1,549,453. The population consists mostly of Iranian Azerbaijanis who speak the Azerbaijani language. It is a major heavy industry hub for automobile, machine tools, refineries and petrochemical, textile, and cement production industries. The city is famous for its handicrafts including hand-woven rugs and jewelry. It is known for locally made confectioneries, chocolates, dried nuts, and traditional food. Tabriz is also an academic hub and a site for some of the most prestigious academic and cultural institutes in the northwest of Iran.
The city has a long and turbulent history with its oldest civilization sites dated back to 1,500 BC. It contains many historical monuments representing the transition of Iranian architecture in its long historical timelines. Most of the preserved historical sites in the city belong to Ilkhanid (of Mongol Empire), Safavid, and Qajar area, among them is the grand Bazaar of Tabriz which is inscribed as a World Heritage Site in 2010. From the early modern era, the city was pivotal in the development, movement, and economy of three neighboring regions, namely that of the Caucasus, Eastern Anatolia, and central Iran. From the 19th century, it became the most important city in the country in numerous respects. As the closest Iranian hub to Europe, many aspects of the early modern modernisation in Iran started in Tabriz. Prior to the forced ceding of Iran's Caucasian territories to Imperial Russia following the two Russo-Persian Wars of the first half of the 19th century, Tabriz was the main city in the implementation of Iranian rule for its Caucasian territories due to its proximity. During almost the entire Qajar period (up to 1925), it functioned as the seat for the crown prince.
Grand Bazaar of Tabriz
Is a historical market situated in the city center of Tabriz, Iran. It is one of the oldest bazaars in the Middle East and the largest covered bazaar in the world and is one of Iran's UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Tabriz has been a place of cultural exchange since antiquity. Its historic bazaar complex is one of the most important commercial centres on the Silk Road. Located in the center of the city of Tabriz, Iran, the structure consists of several sub-bazaars, such as Amir Bazaar (for gold and jewelry), Mozzafarieh (a carpet bazaar, sorted by knot size and type), shoe bazaar, and many other ones for various goods such as household items. The most prosperous time of Tabriz and its bazaar was in the 16th century when the town became the capital city of the Safavid kingdom. The city lost its status as a capital in the 17th century, but its bazaar has remained important as a commercial and economic center. Although numerous modern shops and malls have been established nowadays, Tabriz Bazaar has remained the economic heart of both the city and northwestern Iran.
Tabriz Bazaar has also been a place of political significance, and one can point out its importance in the Iranian Constitutional Revolution in the last century and Islamic Revolution in the contemporary time.
The bazaar was inscribed as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in July 2010
Is a famous historic mosque in Tabrīz, Iran. The mosque and some other public buildings were constructed in 1465 upon the order of Jahan Shah, the ruler of Kara Koyunlu.
The mosque was severely damaged in an earthquake in 1779, leaving only the iwan (entrance hall). Reconstruction began in 1973 by the late Reza Memaran Benam under the supervision of Iranian Ministry of Culture. However, the tiling is still incomplete.
The Blue mosque of Tabriz was built upon the order of Jahan Shah the ruler of Kara Koyunlu dynasty which made Tabriz the capital of his Kingdom. His Kingdom covered major parts of modern Iran, Azerbaijan, and Turkey. He was killed by Uzun Hassan (the ruler of Ak Koyunlu) and buried on the only parts of the mosque that survived.
The mausoleum was built in the southern section of the mosque and is entirely covered with high marble slabs on which verses from Quran are engraved in Thuluth script on a background of fine arabesques. The roof of the mausoleum and the main dome chamber of the mosque collapsed during an earthquake in 1779 A.D. and was rebuilt in 1973 thanks to the efforts of Mohammad Reza Memaran Benam under the supervision of the national organization for preservation of ancient monuments.
Is a historical building in Tabriz.
The edifice was built during the later part of the Zand dynasty (1750–1794) and the early part of the Qajar dynasty (1781–1925), as a residential house. During the reign of Nasereddin Shah Qajar (1848–1896) this building was substantially renovated and embellished with ornamental paintings. The house consists of a main building, referred to as the Winter Building, and a smaller structure, referred to as the Summer Building. The Winter Building is a two-storey symmetrical construction standing on a basement. Like many traditional houses in Iran, this house has an inner and an outer courtyard, the former being the larger of the two. In the course of a 2009 renovation project, some hitherto unknown miniature frescoes were discovered in this house which were restored by specialists. The Behnām House is part of the School of Architecture of Tabriz Art University.
Constitution House of Tabriz
The Constitution House of Tabriz, also known as Khaneh Mashrouteh, is a historical edifice located next to the Great Bazaar of Tabriz, on Motahari Ave in Tabriz, Iran. During the years which led to Constitutional Revolution and afterwards the house was used as a gathering place of the leaders, activists and sympathizers of the movement. Among them, the most famous people were Sattar khan, Bagher Khan, Seqat-ol-Eslam Tabrizi and Haji Mirza Aqa Farshi and the founder Haji Mehdi Kuzeh kanaani, himself a revolutionary activist and a well-reputed person of the time; who was named Abolmele, i.e. the father of the nation at the time. . The two-story building was constructed in 1868 by Haj Vali Me'mar-e Tabrizi. It has numerous rooms and halls. The most beautiful part of the house is a skylight and corridor decorated with colorful glass and mirrors.
The house was constructed by order of Haj Mehdi Koozekonani in 1868. It includes a two floor building with internal and external areas featuring Qajar period architecture. Haj Mehdi Koozekonani was a merchant in the Bazaar of Tabriz. with initiating of Constitution revolution and rising up in Tabriz city, Haj Mehdi joined the revolution and became one of the major financier of the revolution. in the same time he used the house as a place for meeting of the revolution heads, and a place for publication of underground paper of the constitution movement. The house became important in the history once again just after world war II when it is used a place for Azerbaijan's Democrat Party meeting center (1946-1947). On 1975 the house is registered by Cultural Heritage of Iran.
The first floor is an exhibition of sculptures of famous Iranian constitution revolutionaries and some of their personal belongings including their weapons, underground published newspaper of the revolution, night letters, the printing machine which was used in the house to publish revolution papers, and numerous photos from the revolution. One of the rooms in the building is belongs to the woman's role in the revolution.
Amir Nezam House, The Qajar Museum of Tabriz
Is a historical building in the Sheshghelan district, one of the oldest quarters of the city of Tabriz, Iran. The base of the edifice covers an area of 1200 square metres. This monument which since 2006 houses a museum dedicated to the Qajar dynasty (1781-1925), was built in the period of the Crown Prince Abbas Mirza (1789-1833).
It was renovated by Hasan-Ali Khan Hasan Ali Khan Garroosy, in his position as the Major-domo of Azarbaijan, and used as his residency. In the subsequent periods, the house was employed as the official residence of the provincial governors of Azarbaijan. Because of persistent neglect over a long period of time, this building had come to be in such a bad state of disrepair that for a time it was seriously considered to demolish it and build a school in its place. Between 1993-2006 it has been subject of an extensive renovation process and since the completion of this undertaking it has been granted the National Heritage status.
The Sheshghelan district has been Governor's seat during the Ilkhanate dynasty. Hasan-Ali Khan, Amir Nezām Garousi, was born in 1820 in Bijar, in the Kurdistan Province. For a period of twenty-two years he served in various governmental positions. In particular, for a period he was in charge of the Iranian students sent to Europe by the government of Iran. He also served as the General of the Garrus Army and Head of the Security Guards of the High Court and of Arg-e Tabriz. He is buried in Mahan, in the Kerman Province. He is best remembered for his exemplary prose in the Persian language.
Arg of Tabriz
Is remnants of a big unfinished 14th-century mausoleum and a 19th-century military castle and barrack in city center of Tabriz, Iran.The original construction was made between 1318 and 1339, during the Ilkhanate. Within the construction, the roof of the mausoleum collapsed and the construction was stopped afterwards. Centuries later, by the eruption of the Russo-Persian War, 1804-1813, and the Russo-Persian War (1826-1828), the compound was quickly reconstructed as a military compound. During the reconstruction of the Arg compound, a foundry factory for the manufacturing of cannons for the Iranian Army was built, as well as a military headquarter, a barrack for the troops, and a small palace was added as well to the original plan of the Arg. Samson Makintsev, better known as Samson Khan, a Qajar Iranian general of Russian origin, lived inside the citadel for years together with his wife, the daughter of Prince Aleksandre of Georgia.
Shelling of Arg by Russian troops, 1911
During the Russian invasion of Tabriz in 1911 they shelled the Arg in initial attacks. Once they captured the city, they used the Arg as a central command center. During their occupation, because of careless handling, the artillery pieces they used set fire on parts of Arg.
Destruction During Pahlavi era
During the Pahlavi era, parts of the Ark which had been constructed in the 19th century by the Qajar dynasty, were destroyed. This destruction was with the aim of purifying the original Arg construction from later developments. The southern part of the Ark is turned to a park, the "Mellat Garden" before the Iranian revolution in 1979.
Destruction by revolutionaries, early 1980s
In early 1980s after suppression of uprising of supporters of Muslim People's Republic Party against the new establishment of mixing religion and state and neglecting of Azerbaijani minorities, Moslem Malakuti selected as new Imam Juma of Tabriz by revolutionary government. During his tenure in Tabriz the destruction of Ark's Qajar era addendum wall and cultural institutes surrounding it accomplished and a new mosque for Friday prayers. Some people believe this destruction of local heritage was a systematic destruction of local Azerbaijani identity.
Renovation in recent years, 1990s till present days
In 1990s and 2000s a rehabilitation and renovation project was executed by the Iranian Organization for Cultural Heritages. During this rehabilitation however all of the remaining Qajar era development from Arg castle were removed. At the same period a new big mosque was built next to the Arg castle. The superstructure of the new mosque undermine the architecture of Arg castle. Despite the regulations of the Iranian Organization for Cultural Heritages and several court hearing the construction of the new structure continued and accomplished.
Belongs to poets, mystics and famous people, located in the Surkhab district of Tabriz in Iran. It was built by Tahmaseb Dolatshahi in the mid-1970s while he was the Secretary of Arts and Cultures of East Azarbaijan.
On the east side of Sayyed Hamzeh's grave and Ghaem Magham's grave, there is a graveyard containing the graves of important poets, mystics, scientists and well-known people of Tabriz. The Mausoleum was first mentioned by the medieval historian Hamdollah Mostowfi in his Nozhat ol-Gholub. Hamdollah mentions it being located in what, at the time, was the Surkhab district of Tabriz.
Since the 1970s, there have been attempts to renovate the graveyard area. Some work has been carried out like the construction of a new symbolic building on this site.
The first poet buried in this complex is Asadi Tusi (999-1072).